We are currently evaluating various studies on dynamic agroforestry. Here you get a first insight. Further studies will follow shortly.
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This study attempted to identify the economic challenges facing companies with agroforestry systems (SAFs) for family farming (PA). A comparative economic analysis of 10 (ten) SAFs and three monocultures in Brazil was conducted, with the identification and selection of 8 (eight) SAFs reported in the literature, which represented the secondary data. mehr
They dealt with case studies in different periods and regions of Brazil. The other two (2) SAFs covered the collection and analysis of primary data and dealt with biodiverse and successive systems. A methodology focused on microeconomics and project analysis, extended to the knowledge area of rural administration and forestry technology, with an analysis of the impact of the sequence of SAFs on economic indicators. As economically viable SAFs were selected, five of them showed an internal rate of return (IRR) of over 50% in the first five-year period. However, due to the adoption of some project selection criteria for the PA, such as the maximum two-year payback period (PR), only four of these SAFs were considered appropriate for the PA segment and represented a Family Workers' Compensation (RMO) of more than 58% of the daily wage of the farm workers, which equals R$36.00/day. In determining the break-even point (SP) specific to each FSS, the point at which all costs are paid is defined, so it is essential to manage the PA. Thus, the area (ha), the annual production (kg) and the annual income (R$) have been defined as the minimum for a family holding with FAS. Taking into account SAFs 9 and 10, 10.7 and 8 hectares of production area are required. This is because properties below the PE cannot meet all the financial requirements of the company, nor can they accumulate resources for growth or to finance acquired financing. It has also been observed that the cash flow and cost B/C ratio in each period is directly related to the existence of the five agroforestry succession groups. It was found that the use of biodiversity can increase profitability through succession planning and reduce production costs as in the case of SAF 10 and provides an SAF with favorable conditions for competitiveness.
The development of an alternative production model to the agrochemical model and traditional agriculture is gaining increasing strength in society. Micro-regional experiences have been tested in several regions of Brazil with positive results. These indications show that the path to the new model of agricultural production has begun and will be successful. mehr
The text we present here was written by the farmer and researcher Ernst Götsch, motivated by his visit to farmers in the municipality of Bom Jardim (PE), which took place for three days in May 1994 at the invitation of Centro Sabiá. Ernst's success in agriculture is not based on a criticism of hegemonic models of agricultural production, but on lessons that prove that it is perfectly possible to develop an agriculture that reconciles the work of man with the processes of nature and achieves from it what is necessary for a good life. The purpose of this publication is to disseminate some basic ideas about the agricultural systems systematized by Ernst Götsch, as a contribution to the debate and construction of agroecology as an alternative model of agriculture. In the first part of the text Ernst presents his understanding of the topic and shows the limits of modern Western thinking. In the following part he gives suggestions for a sustainable management of agricultural systems.
This monographic essay derives from the need to create a new theoretical framework for agroscopic practice. In order to deeply reveal this new silvicultural dimension, we propose semantic analysis as an analytical methodology. mehr
A reflexive line of etymological analysis of a radical nature (radical = to go to the root, etymology = Greek term for truth, i.e. the origin of truth) was chosen in order to avoid the seduction of superficial concepts that are subject to temporality and to allow the manifestation of their fontal meaning and their central vein that represents the relationship in an absolute way. As a relational process, it is under the aegis of evolution, and this analysis must be carried out regressively up to the cosmos (time-zero planck - cosmogenesis). Only when we go to the source/root can we make our cosmic everyday life possible until the appearance of today's human being, who in turn is a historical-social being (of communication and relationship) and can be divided anthropologically into three ages: mind, body, life, etymologically/truthfully reconstructing. And in order to embrace today this epoch of life deeply through transcendence, it is necessary that the new man emerges with a renewed spirit that will understand the mechanisms of nature in a different way. From this new interpretation, a new, much more harmonious, synergic and homeostatic action will emerge at the centre, which will materialise in the form of practical endocultural ecosystem research: Insensitive to any seduction by definitions that would frame our reality in a rigid and reductionist conception. This new attitude of being together with nature will allow us to drink from the Caboclos knowledge in its zero-reality level, which we will use as a reference for a more cautious approach to the environment. For this reason, we can confirm an agriculture under the woods based on the logic of ecological relations and oriented towards the system of local activities and customs. It is extremely viable not only economically, but also ecologically and spiritually.
The aim of this project is to evaluate the regenerative and analogue agroforestry systems (SAFRA) with regard to ecological sustainability, using as indicators the increase or enrichment of biomass and nutrient deposition through litter and the height growth of cultivated tree species. mehr
This work is integrated in PRODETAB/EMBRAPA - 39th project - and was developed at Goura Vrindávna Farm, Paraty - RJ. 28 multipurpose tree species were grown in three agroforestry treatments: Minimum SAFRA (simplified system of banana crop enrichment), Absolute SAFRA (dense and diversified system) and Modified SAFRA (same composition of the latter SAFRA plus soil fertilization). The height of the tree species was measured in the 7th, 17th and 24th month. The modified SAFRA received the highest percentage increase in height and the most promising species for the composition of agroforestry systems in Paraty's edafoclimatic conditions were Croton floribundus, Enterolobium contortisilliquum, Artocarpus integrifolia e Euterpe oleracea. To evaluate nutrient deposition by litter, samples of three saffron and two control treatments, banana culture and area 3 in fallow, were collected by 625cm2 collectors fifteen months after planting. Measurements of micro- and macronutrient content were carried out in the samples. The minimum SAFRA was the system that deposited the highest weight in the litter (32.4 tons.ha-1) and the highest content of micro- and macronutrients. Of the macronutrients quantified in the litter, with the exception of C e H, N was the one with the highest content in the five treatments and Fe was the micronutrient that was deposited the most. The pruning of the vegetation in the SAFRA favoured nutrient cycling and contributed to increasing the content in the litter. Considering the nutrient deposition by litter, the SAFRAs were the most promising systems for recovering these ecological functions when compared to fallow land and banana monoculture.
Riparian forest is the vegetation that borders rivers, ponds and lakes, and although it is protected by law, agricultural systems are widespread in these areas. The restoration of deforested riparian zones is required by law, but agroforestry systems are not accepted for this purpose. The aim of this research was to compare the success and costs of three types of restoration management systems: two agroforestry systems and one forestry system, in order to provide a basis for changes in public policy. mehr
This research was carried out in the State of São Paulo, Piracicaba County, in the water catchment area of the Corumbataí River, on the Usina Costa Pinto farm, where sugar cane fills most of the landscape. were treated: (1) Control, (2) Forestry with 10 indigenous tree species; (3) Agroforestry 1, where in addition to trees two herbaceous/shrubby legume species were included; (4) Agroforestry 2, where 10 edible fruit species, sunflower and napier grass were added. The management was evaluated by measuring the height and diameter of native tree species, soil respiration, microbial biomass and soil fertility. When comparing the mean height of all species, Agroforestry System 1 showed the best results, being 36% better than the forestry system. Agroforestry System 2 showed intermediate results: the mean altitude was 10% higher than that achieved in the forestry system. When species were grouped according to ecological succession, pioneers showed no difference between treatments, but non-pioneers grew 35% better in Agroforestry System 1. It is likely that legumes played the role of pioneers, improving the environment and supporting better development of non-pioneers. The mean diameter at ground level of all species showed differences between Agroforestry 1 (51% better) and Agroforestry 2, but both did not differ from forestry, which had intermediate results. Similar differences were found when the species were grouped into pioneers and non-pioneers. Among pioneers, Agroforestry System 1 was 67% better than Agroforestry System 2 and among non-pioneers the difference was 33%. There were no differences between the treatments in terms of soil fertility, microbial biomass and soil respiration. When estimating the costs on the basis of the changes proposed after the data analysis, the costs for Agroforestry System 1 could be 16% lower than for the Forestry System, as less weed control interventions are required. Agroforestry System 2 had the highest costs because it required much more work than other treatments and this system, like Agroforestry System 1, is outside the legal standard for seed production. Studies on the heterogeneity of the environment allowed to arrange blocks based on the block mean of all measured parameters. Based on the same principles, the native tree species were also ranked according to the Götsch theory of succession: Croton urucurana, Cecropia pachystachya, Cordia superba, Guazuma ulmifolia, Cytharexyllum myrianthum, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Trema micrantha, Peltophorum dubium, Schinus terebinthifolius, Nectandra megapotamica. Under conditions of high fragmentation of natural forests and high weed density, agroforestry systems can have a positive impact on the restoration of riparian forests by favouring better growth of native trees and lower restoration costs.
Agroforestry has the potential to slow down tropical deforestation for several reasons. mehr
Agroforestry has potential to slow tropical deforestation for three main reasons. First, it can extend the period of agricultural production in already cleared areas, thus reducing the need to clear more forest. Second, evidence is accumulating that agroforestry - especially modern, market-oriented systems - improves living standards, thus enabling farmers to channel less time and resources toward extensive slash-and-burn agriculture for subsistence. Third, farmers who successfully plant trees as part of their farming systems are more likely to perceive the importance of conserving forest resources. A great deal of farmer experimentation is underway with agroforestry systems across the Brazilian Amazon, and farmers are deploying hundreds of different combinations involving both native and introduced crop species. Such experiences are a valuable reservoir of knowledge that can be tapped for further agroforestry development in the region. Overall, however, agroforestry represents a small portion of land uses in Amazonia. Cattle pasture, often degraded, and secondary growth still dominate most cultural landscapes in the region. Slash-and-bum fields that are cultivated for a few years with cereal or root crops account for much ofthe remaining farmland. The purpose of this study is to analyze the constraints holding back a fuller deployment of agroforestry systems in the Brazilian Amazon, and to identify opportunities for overcoming those constraints. By examining specific cases throughout the region, the study identifies important lessons that, if applied more widely, could help promote agroforestry and achieve a better balance of land use systems in the region. Socioeconomic factors are the primary constraints to further development of agroforestry in the Brazilian Amazon. Commercial interest rates in Brazil are too high for either farmers or entrepreneurs interested in processing agricultural producls, and few government-subsidized credit programs effectively target agroforestry. In an increasingly global marketplace, Amazonia is at a distinct disadvantage due its inadequate infrastructure (particularly energy supplies, roads, and port facilities), lack of agroindustry, incipient farmer organizations, and insufficiently funded and staffed R&D system. Because of these constraints, most of the growing and processing of tropical fruits, including those native to Amazonia, takes place in Brazil's Northeast and in the state of Sao Paulo, where infrastructure and yields are better. In general, neither the region's public sector research system nor extension by government agencies or non-government organizations (NGOs) are meeting the needs of farmers involved in agroforestry. Reasons forthis mismatch include: * Drastically reduced budgets and lack of client orientation undermine the effectiveness of many governmental research and extension agencies in the region; likewise, NGOs generally lack research capacity and are too often production oriented, rather than market oriented. * Because it falls between the cracks of traditional commodity research and forestry, agroforestry still receives limited attention from the agricultural research and extension programs ofthe region. * Most agroforestry research in the public sector still involves a top-down approach, in which crop configurations are conceived by scientists with little or no input or participation by local farmers. * Inadequate attention is paid to existing and potential markets when planning research and extension programs, in part because ofthe paucity of economists and marketing specialists on the staff of research institutes. * Both public agencies and NGOs have been unable to provide reliable seed stock and seedling supply sources, and although the private sector is increasingly supplying planting material used in commercial agroforestry systems, demand far outstrips supply - which is of highly variabie quality. * While natural forest ecosystems represent an important source of genetic resources for improving existing and potential agroforestry crops, the linkages between forest conservation and agroforestry development are generally not recognized nor clearly understood.
This work is the result of a historical process experienced by the indigenous peoples of the Amazon, especially the indigenous peoples of Acre. mehr
It stands for a new era of concrete experiences in regaining the autonomy lost 502 years ago. The experience of the indigenous agroforestry agents of Acre is only possible thanks to new fighting tools that the Indians have been using for some time now to defend and guarantee their civil rights: partnerships, alliances and political dialogue. In this context, this work deserves full recognition. Progress is made possible by the commitment of the parties involved, based on the will of indigenous communities to take responsibility for their future projects. But in the current reality, this is not enough. The effective contribution and commitment of partners and allies is essential. The participation of the Pro-Indio Commission of Acre - CPI/AC, has been crucial for the technical support of the project, and has shown the extent to which it is possible to provide adequate and quality advice. The technical and financial support of the PDA was essential to promote the initiative and to build confidence that it is possible to give recognition to local communities in the formulation and implementation of concrete measures that can influence serious public policies. In particular, I am impressed by the comprehensive and appropriate treatment that the project gives to the various dimensions of the daily indigenous life of the communities, using local natural resources, knowledge and values inherent to these peoples as a reference point. It gives me the certainty that the new era of autonomy is indeed a real opportunity that is being built. By disseminating the promising and innovative experiences of the indigenous agroforestry agents of Acre, this publication invites all readers, Indians and non-Indians, to make a commitment to look for new concrete initiatives that will improve the living conditions of these peoples and guarantee a dignified future for all forest dwellers.
Primer on the legislation of the State of São Paulo for the implementation of SAFs, mainly in small properties. mehr
This workbook is part of the "Educator's Backpack" on agroforestry developed by Arboreto/Parque Zoobotânico da Federal University of Acre. mehr
Its aim is to subsidize agroforestry educators, conceptually, so that they can have more confidence and ingenuity, as well as to create a larger technical base by using the methodology of agroforestry training from the Agroforestry Educator's Manual. We believe that when you have clear concepts, the basics make it easier to act coherently and that the participation of the other depends on your own involvement. The agroforestry educator should therefore be an example of practice and show himself confident, with solid arguments, for agroforestry. This handout is subject to adjustments, changes and is open to further information and reflection. The search for literature and other means of information should be part of the profile of a real agroforestry educator, who constantly reviews his work, passes on his knowledge and feeds it from the exchange of experience and also from autodidactic practice.
This work deals primarily with tropical conditions and only comparative observations. mehr
The project described below is an attempt at harmonizing our agricultural activities with natural processes of life in order to" produce an optimum of diversity and. quantity of high quality fruits, seeds and of other organic materials, without utilizing imported fertilizers, pesticides and heavy machinery. In fact, it is an attempt at finding for each plant those conditions in which it best develops, and of approximating our agricultural systems in any given situation as near as possible to the natural ecosystem to be intervened. This in contrast, therefore to modem approach in agriculture, in which man tries to adapt plants and ecosystems to the "needs" of modern agriculture.
This thesis describes a method for rapid recovery of degraded soils and for sustainable agroforestry in the humid tropics. mehr
This paper describes a method for the rapid recovery of degraded soils and for sustainable agroforestry in the humid tropics. The method, in essence, is an attempt at imitating the natural process of species succession. I have devised means of accelerating the process through strategic interventions. The net result of these practices is that, in only five years of time, completely degraded soils now support highly productive and diverse agroforestry systems. Evidence is presented that, even in regenerated soils, the dynamics of natural species succession play an important role in ensuring the health and vigor of crops.
It is necessary to think in terms of agricultural systems that optimize nutrient cycling, enable permanent or semi-permanent production and reduce environmental pollution. mehr
41% of Bolivian soils are degraded by erosion and desertification, with the departments of La Paz, Cochabamba, Chuquisaca, Potosi and Oruro being most severely affected, particularly in their arid and semi-arid regions (CYTED, 2002). Due to the effects of deforestation, overuse of land and poor management of agricultural and forestry land in general, which are exacerbated by climate change. It is necessary to think in terms of agricultural systems that optimise nutrient cycling, allow permanent or semi-permanent production, reduce dependence on external inputs and reduce environmental pollution. Thus, agroforestry practices are a sustainable option for land use, allowing producers to use the available resources to optimize their use and adapt plant species to their needs. There are native species with high potential for food, firewood, nitrogen fixation, fodder, which are used as pets by families living in arid areas.
Here you will find a manual, which is intended to serve as a tool for farmers to improve traditional reproduction techniques and to convey the importance of soils and forests. mehr
This manual, developed around the agro-ecological and forestry implementation project in Alto Beni - PIAF/El Ceibo, is a practical tool for farmers to improve traditional production techniques without destroying soils and forests. In our practical experience in the Alto Beni area we have found that many farmers do not give enough importance to the conservation and improvement of soils, as this aspect is one of the most important variables that will determine the good or bad production of the plots in the present and in the future. For many years, the institutions grouped together in the Interinstitutional Alto Beni (IIAB) have been working to promote and disseminate successive agroforestry systems, known as Multistratum, as an alternative approach to agricultural production that takes into account the importance of preserving and maintaining biodiversity and soil fertility as a means of ensuring good plant production.
What is behind the name "agroforestry analogue", you can find out here... mehr
This article examines the principles and practices behind the "agroforestry analogue", a remarkable approach that has been successfully used to regenerate abandoned pastures whose soils have been completely degraded. Within a period of 5-8 years they were able to withstand various agroforestry operations and had become highly productive again. These results were achieved without the use of chemical fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides or heavy machinery.
Indigenous societies have been living in Amazonia for thousands of years, developing their strategies for managing forests and fields. The importance of integrating this indigenous knowledge into the design of "modern" resource management systems is increasingly recognised. mehr
The case of an agroforestry farm in the coastal mountain area of the federal state of Bahia, Brazil, is used to highlight benefits of the integration of traditional knowledge into a scientifically based farming system. Special attention is given to the selection, combination and management of the crops cultivated. Working hypotheses on the rationale of some major measures are suggested and discussed from a synecological point of view. The results show that under the site conditions the 'forest garden' provides cocoa yields without external inputs at a level which, in the surrounding cocoa plantations, can only be attained by the use of considerable amounts of fertilizer and pesticides.
This case study compared two climatic regions in the north-east where small farmers applied the method of successive agroforestry mehr
The maintenance of sustainable agricultural use on the property of a family in a nature reserve in the north-eastern region of Rio Grande do Sul. mehr
The overall objective of this thesis was to understand the potential and limitations of agroforestry and sustainable activities in the sun and route BB around it, in order to help in determining the family farmer on his land, income and food security. With specific objectives: the diagnosis of experiences in agroforestry in the APA and its surroundings, analyzing the challenges and potential for the establishment of agroforestry and sustainable activities in the perspective of production and conservation in the dense rainforest and Araucaria forest. The methodology to achieve the results was carried out by observing local experiences and case studies of alternative production systems and agroforestry consortia of Juçara bananas. This study aims to identify and classify the farmers using the law of the Atlantic Ocean. The law stipulates that this different treatment is enforced on farmers and traditional populations in estates of up to 50 hectares, but the State of RS is more restrictive and differentiates farmers with enrolment of up to 25 hectares. The result is the mapping and identification of 15 experiences of farmers operating neo-rural consortia and agroforestry under the APA. It was observed that among SAF and consortia, a difference between the FOM and FOD systems was evaluated. In FOM it was observed that initiatives of neo-rural farmers to implement alternative production systems dominate native species. In FOD it was observed that it is the smallholders who develop experience with the management of SAF and consortia with the density of breeding with native species. It shows the possibility of keeping these farmers on their land in harmony with the conservation of the environment and the maintenance of sustainable use. It urges the creation of technical procedures for licensing specifically for forest management of agroforestry systems, with training of personnel in licensing and rural expansion.
This work is the result of a qualitative study that emerged from the epistemological understanding of social constructivism in order to enable an investigation of meanings. mehr
The aim of the study was to construct meanings for the use of multistrata agroforestry systems in two rural communities in order to establish a link that places the work of these agricultural communities in their contexts and creates knowledge about the social changes between them. The groups who wrote the study were linked to Cooperafloresta - Cooperativa de agricultores agroflorestais de Barra do Turvo (SP) e Adrianópolis (PR) -, inhabitants of Barra do Turvo and members of the Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra (MST), inhabitants of the Mário Lago settlement in Ribeirão Preto-SP. The period of restructuring the field lasted 45 days, divided between the two communities. The methodology used was participatory observation, and the product proposed was the elaboration of a field diary, a narrative on which the construction of meanings in the present work is based. By addressing two communities whose historical context is different but who share the work with agroforestry systems, the aim was to express the diversity of the communities' narratives in response to the systemic consequences of the hegemonic pattern of agricultural production implemented in the Green Revolution. As a result, it has been possible to develop a range of meanings for working with AFS, including the search for food security, the relationship with health promotion and emancipation through access to alternative market channels. The sense of cooperation with nature appears as a recurring discourse, giving way to a sense of pride and social recognition for the environmental services they provide. The work gave expression to an innovative sense of collaboration with AFS in these communities. Through a sense of belonging to nature and a sense of social responsibility, it gives new meaning to farming and leads to new ways of approaching the debate on health.
Summary of the work in agroforestry in Humaitá. mehr
The work with agroforestry in Humaitá has a very practical character. Learning takes place during the implementation and execution of the SAF and through the exchange of new experiences. The management of organic matter (always keeping the soil covered) and selective weed control were innovations that revolutionized the use of the land by reducing the work of controlling the scrubland and allowing a better development of the crops, and we even noticed that they produced more maize crops per year by keeping the soil moist longer. Farmers know the benefits of the plants and their natural regeneration when used properly. Today, they no longer fear competition between plants as long as they are properly combined.
Ecosystem restoration is the name given to the challenge of reconstructing the structure through planned interventions and creating the conditions to also restore the natural ecological processes of each ecosystem (Durigan, 1999). mehr
Restoration must start from the state of degradation or conservation in which the ecosystems and the landscape in which they are located. Each situation is unique and requires specific pathways determined by local needs and objectives, taking into account priorities, opportunities and key locations for starting activities. For ecosystem restoration by landowners, businesses and government agencies to be truly effective, there is an urgent need to develop alternatives that make them economically viable. The economic factor is now a source that encourages or slows down action in any field, and must be taken into account in such a way that the restoration of what has already been degraded and the interruption and transformation of degrading activities actually take place. In this scenario, agroforestry systems can play an innovative role by combining restoration, conservation and production. The similarity with regional ecosystems, biodiversity and the search for an acceleration of the succession process can contribute to restoration, and diversified and staggered production can guarantee the economic income that supports decision-making. Making owners and institutions aware of the reasons for and the need for restoration is a first step towards involving all stakeholders in their environment. People and groups linked to the ecosystems of the region in question are the social actors of the landscape and are of great importance in strategic planning for environmental protection and restoration of ecosystems.
An agroforestry system (SAF) based on natural succession was tested in the region of the submontane dense reed-bed forest in the south of Bahia, Brazil, and was discussed as a strategy for restoring damaged soils and also as a sustainable production system with great potential to replace the current agricultural model, which has proven to be very environmentally, socially and culturally compatible. mehr
In this thesis a comparison was made between an area of SAF with 12 years of management (A12) and a fallow area (A0) with the same age, history and environmental characteristics in order to determine the effects of the management of a succession-oriented SAF on vegetative (floristic, phytosociological and successive) and edaphic (serapil tree, soil and soil macrofauna) parameters. A floristic and phytosciological study was carried out on two plots of 0.5 ha each (called A12 - SAF and A0 - Capoeira), divided into 20m x 10m and 35m x 14.3m plots respectively, to determine the vegetative parameters commonly used in this work. The floristic similarity between the investigated areas was verified by the Jaccard index, whose matrix was used for classification and order analysis. Data were also collected for the chemical analysis of the soil and serapilheira for the two situations compared (SAF and Capoeira). The macrofauna present in the Serapilheira and the first 5 cm of the soil was also collected. The soil was analysed from 25 composite samples for the three depths (0-5, 5-20 and 40-60 cm), and the sackcloth was sampled at the same points, collecting material of 0.25 m2 per point. The vegetation of the two areas studied, A0 - Capoeira and A12 - SAF, were different both floristically and phytosociologically. The floristic composition showed that the area of SAF (A12) was successively more advanced than that of Capoeira, with emphasis on the density of the families Mimosaceae, Lauraceae and Caesalpiniaceae. In the area of Capoeira (A0) the family with the highest density was Melastomataceae. The area A12 (SAF) showed a greater diversity and equity than A0 (Capoeira). The chemical analysis of the soil was different in each area, with the emphasis on phosphorus, which in area A12 had about 7 times more P2O5 for 0-5 cm depth than in area A0 and 4 times more for 5-20 cm. Area A12 had a V% of 83%, while area A0 had 41% at a depth of 0-5 cm. Regarding the results on burlap, although the dry weight of the burlap showed no statistical difference between the two areas, chemically area A12 showed much higher nutrient levels in burlap than area A0, except for calcium and sulphur, which were similar. The macrofauna of the soil was also different in the two areas, with area A12 being successively more developed and saprophytes predominant, while in Capoeira predators were predominant. Vegetation management with emphasis on regular pruning was highlighted as largely responsible for the differences between areas A0 and A12, which led the managed area to a more advanced successive state with a greater supply of organic matter with higher nutrient concentration and conditioned the dynamics of nutrient cycling and life in the system. It was found that the SAF in question transformed an area with dystrophic soil into a productive area with high fertility in 12 years of cultivation, which proved to be a promising alternative for the restoration of degraded soils and also represented a sustainable production system for the humid tropics without the use of external inputs.
It is recommended that a programme of agroforestry enrichment with forestry incentives be initiated on the farms of the Alto Beni, using indigenous and exotic wood species, training producers in the design and management of wood in agroforestry systems, controlling felling and managing natural regeneration. mehr
The stock of timber trees (DBH ≥10 cm) on 212 farms of cooperatives (87) and associations (125) in Alto Beni, Bolivia, was inventoried using two methods (100 field inventories and 112 inventories in workshops with producers) and the farmers' preference and demand for wood species and plantation types to enrich their farms was recorded. The forest inventory data were compared between the types of organisation, land use and the type of methodology. The number of species, the number of individuals per species and the plantation types preferred by the producers were compared between the different types of organisation. Four agroforestry technologies were technically designed and financially evaluated to enrich an average farm and the farms studied, and the financial feasibility of each of the proposed measures was assessed. Thirty-three families, 50 genera, 54 species and 7127 individuals were recorded on an agricultural area of 1496 ha. The abundance and density of wood per farm was 5 species or 3.5 trees ha-1 and was similar in cooperative and association farms. The most common species were Swietenia macrophylla, Schyzolobium parahyba, Amburana cearensis, Centrolobium ochroxylum and Cedrela odorata. The trees are scarcely managed for forestry purposes due to the lack of knowledge of the producers and the lack of technical support. The estimation of wood abundance and density on farms was similar for both inventory methods. The producers applied for 60690 trees of 50 species for the reforestation of their farms, i.e. 363 timber trees per farm, divided between cocoa plantations, citrus plantations, pure forest plantations and borders. The most requested species were C. ochroxylum, S. macrophylla, A. cearensis, Cedrela. odorata and Tectona grandis. The four agroforestry interventions proposed for the average farm were financially viable. Citrus and cocoa enrichment yielded the highest TERs of US$ 14307 and U$ 7041 respectively; followed by pure forest plantations and the borders of S. macrophylla and C. odorata. The reforestation of the 212 cocoa farms in Alto Beni will yield a TVA of US$ 2066065, which corresponds to the establishment of 16475 trees on 20 ha of citrus fruit, 230 ha of cocoa, 30 ha of pure plantations and 13 km of linear plantations to produce 5665 m3 of timber. The producers intend to plant wood on their farms in collaboration with seedling production projects and technical assistance. The inventory of wood products through workshops is a quick, easy and reliable method to estimate the wood stock on the Alto Beni farms. It is recommended to initiate an agroforestry enrichment programme with forestry incentives on the Alto Beni farms, using indigenous and exotic wood species, training producers in the design and management of wood in agroforestry systems, controlling felling and managing natural regeneration.
The organisation "Cooperafloresta" creates alternatives for rural farmers and families to counteract their ecological and social and economic problems. mehr
This book deals with the construction of alternatives that are offered by farmers and women associated with the Cooperafloresta, an organization that brings together rural families from the municipalities of Barra do Turvo in São Paulo, Adrianópolis and Bocaiúva do Sul in Paraná, in the Ribeira Valley region that borders the two states. There is an ongoing agro-ecological production experience in agroforestry, for which these men and women were confronted with ecological and social problems, the extent of which threatened their own social reproduction as farmers and that of their close natural environment (JOLLIVET, 1999) - the land on which they live, their availability of water, the quality of the soil, in other words, the material basis of their existence.
The planning and management of 50 consecutive Multistrate Plots (PSME) were evaluated, owner-producer perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of this system were collected, financial indicators were calculated for five selected plots and the factors limiting the introduction of this production system in Alto Beni, Bolivia were identified. mehr
The diversified agricultural production of SMEs satisfied the self-consumption needs of families and offered great advantages for the preservation of the natural ecosystem. However, they did not meet the commercial and income-generating expectations of producers. The general administration of the SME was deficient. Commercial pressure on producers, expensive and scarce germplasm of high quality fruit and timber trees and the lack of training and technical support for this complex system led producers to simplify the botanical composition, structure and land cover in HSP plots to encourage the development and production of a few crops with local commercial potential. Markets need to be opened up for a number of exotic fruits found in SMEs, as the local market only accepts cocoa, citrus fruits and bananas.
Dynamic agroforestry: definition and main components of the cultivation method mehr
There are several different definitions of an agroforestry system. The Center for Agricultural and Forestry Development (Navia, 2000) gives the following definition:Agroforestry systems are forms of use and management of natural resources in which wood species (trees, shrubs, palms) are used in deliberate association with agricultural crops or animals on the same land, either simultaneously or in chronological order. With the criterion that the whole is more than the sum of its parts, a variety of timber species and agricultural crops are combined in a way that is similar to the ecological functioning of a natural forest. In this sense, a PES by definition estimates the benefit to the ecosystem. Among the most recognized benefits of agroforestry are: reduction of soil degradation, improvement of soil fertility with an increase in organic matter and nitrogen supply, control of unfavorable environmental conditions (wind, excessive temperature, evaporation of water resources, etc.), shade and animal feed, and availability of marketable products.
This PAS assessment study has four main components:
1) Case selection;
2) Quantitative assessment of economic benefits;
3) Quantitative and qualitative assessment of the benefits to the ecosystem and the environment; and
4) Assessment of the producers' assessment of the benefits.the study shows that all types of benefits are important for producers and that PES generally generate them in parallel and in combination.
This case study presents an alternative for keeping our ecosystem healthy by addressing the main aspects that people receive: the economic, the environmental and the social. mehr
It is important to work on these issues today, as our lives and the lives of future generations depend on them. The progressive change of the soil due to the demographic growth registered in many places on the Bolivian Tropic of Cancer is causing soil degradation, the yield in crops tends to decrease and the growth of weeds (Sujo) becomes difficult to control. For this reason, we need to analyse different ways to preserve our fertile land in order to guarantee food security and a healthy ecosystem. When forests are cleared for agriculture, soils lose their nutritional value, eroding areas and losing biodiversity. "The use of land for agricultural purposes is characterized by slash-and-burn agriculture and slash-and-burn clearing, which is the main cause of the loss of forest ecosystems and biodiversity in the region" (Milz, 2002)
The Alto Beni region in the department of La Paz, Bolivia, is an area that has been settled since the early 1960s by families from the Altiplano and mining centers. mehr
The natural vegetation of the region is characterized by tropical rain forest. Agricultural activity is one of the causes of accelerated deforestation in the region and the loss of biodiversity. The correlations revealed in this thesis indicate that the complexity of living systems cannot be reduced as desired and that sooner or later monocultures will affect their stability, the indicators of which are the decline in yields and problems with diseases and pests. One of the possible causes may be, on the one hand, reduced biodiversity in monoculture systems and, on the other hand, a lack of energy supply, i.e. energy in the form of lignin compounds. Since 1996, Successional Agroforestry Systems (SAFS) have been developed in the region with oranges and other crops, whose functional principles are based on the natural succession of species, combining species with different life cycles in high density with crops of economic interest. By pruning, a high energy flow is maintained within the system. This article presents the results of research on soil fertility and the infestation of orange plantations by fruit flies, both in agroforestry systems and in monocultures; it shows that in the former it is possible to obtain better and higher fertility, with fewer pests and diseases, and at the same time maintain a considerable biodiversity with more than 60 different species of forest and fruit trees per hectare. The work carried out aims to present sustainable forms of production that preserve the natural resources of rainforest ecosystems, which are quite fragile given the systemic relationships.
The overall objective of this study was to assess the current state of the soil in terms of its physical, chemical and biological properties in three farming systems (agro-biological, agro-forestry and local). mehr
The work was carried out in two stages: The first was to obtain information on the agricultural practices developed in the study plots and the second was to collect information on the general characteristics of these plots and analyse the state of the physical, chemical and biological indicators of the soil.
Alto Beni is an agricultural production area in which about 2,000 rural families depend on cocoa production and marketing. mehr
Cocoa production follows the requirements of organic certification, and chemical fertilizers are not used, among other things for reasons of cost and access. Therefore, maintaining soil fertility and sustainability depends mainly on the cycle of biomass and nutrients provided by the production system. There are several shortcomings in crop management; farmers are not aware of the benefits and functions of biomass provided by shade trees and do not have adequate knowledge or tools to implement management practices such as tree pruning. The present study compares the production of biomass and nutrients produced by the practice of pruning in cocoa plantations in the successive (AS) and traditional (TR) agroforestry systems of the area. In the methodology adapted for this study, a first characterization was carried out by estimating the air biomass and an investigation of the soils in cocoa plantations. The production of cut biomass and the nutrient content (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) in the biomass were evaluated, the decomposition of organic matter was estimated by means of the carbon/nitrogen ratio (C:N) and the solar radiation generated by the plantation cut was measured. Biomass production and nutrient content were higher in the AS system and differed significantly from TR. Therefore, the AS system is an alternative and recommended as it provides significant amounts of biomass and nutrients for the productivity and sustainability of the cocoa plantations in the region.
In many parts of the world, effective approaches to agriculture in forests are being developed based on indigenous fallow land management and natural processes in these ecosystems. mehr
In many parts of the world, effective approaches to agriculture in forests are being developed, based on indigenous fallow land management and the natural processes in these ecosystems (pp. 8, 14). Experiences with "(agro)forestry analogues" show the potential of ecological soil and vegetation management to regenerate forests and increase their productivity in a sustainable way. Participatory methods (pp. 8 and 20) are needed to develop specific ways to apply these ecological approaches in different locations, especially in the driest areas. Livestock breeding can play an important role in the relocation of agriculture. Better management of fallow land can also be effective in intensifying livestock farming in the context of agricultural relocation, as the example of the Tzotzil Maya shows (p. 23). These approaches to intensify land use will probably only work in situations where ecological regeneration and intensification is absolutely necessary and where they can offer attractive alternatives in terms of labour productivity and costs. Rising fossil fuel prices are now creating the economic and political conditions that make ecological alternatives more attractive.
Diagnosis of agroforestry systems in the dry zone of the department of Cochabamba, with the vision of extending this to other zones in the future. mehr
The experience with agroforestry systems in the humid tropical zone of Bolivia suggests that they can be a good alternative to agricultural systems in arid zones characterized by low production due to soil degradation, desertification, current climatic conditions and other factors. On this basis, it was decided to carry out the diagnosis of agroforestry systems in the arid zone of the department of Cochabamba, with the vision of extending it to other zones in the future.
A method how our agricultural activities can be harmonized with the natural life processes... mehr
This project is an attempt to harmonize our agricultural activities with natural life processes in order to produce an optimum variety and quantity of high quality fruit, seeds and other organic materials without using imported fertilizers, pesticides and heavy machinery. In fact, it is an attempt to find the conditions in which each plant develops best and to adapt our agricultural systems as closely as possible to the natural ecosystem to be intervened in every situation. This is in contrast to the modern approach to agriculture, in which humans try to adapt plants and ecosystems to the "needs" of modern agriculture. The project was mainly implemented in the humid tropics, but the principles of the method would be the same wherever plants can be grown on our planet.
A research on agroforestry, land use and management, sustainability indicators, fruit trees and accompanying trees, semi-arid zone, sustainability indices and radar graphs mehr
The present research aims to propose a methodology for the assessment of agroforestry systems in drylands that takes into account the social, environmental and economic dimensions installed within the ISABEL project and that can be replicated under similar conditions and according to the specifications of the ISABEL project.
Since the mid-1990s until today several institutions have implemented agroforestry systems (SAF) in Alto Beni, in the northern part of the department of La Paz. mehr
The first settlers settled in the Altiplano in the tropics, at the foot of the Andes Mountain. This place was completely different from their place of origin, which posed a constant challenge in terms of climate, vegetation and agricultural practices. The so-called SAF were originally mixed cultures. The interlinked crops, represented more complex systems, known as multi-layered, with a high species density per plot, in some cases up to 60 plant species and more. This process of adapting the PAS to the reality of Alto Beniana is based on the natural succession of species, i.e. agroforestry is carried out by observing the natural environment with its pioneering successive plants, transitional and primary. From these initial experiments and the constant adaptation to the daily reality of the agriculture of the region, a technical and systematic work manual has been created, which provides a conceptual guide in agroforestry for farmers, rural promoters and technicians, in Alto Beni as well as in other similar regions. DED Bolivia, together with its partners such as the Interinstitutional Alto Beni, Agro OSCAR and PIAF El Ceibo, is pleased to present the handbook as a contribution to sustainable management of natural resources and a better life for families of agroforestry farmers in Alto Beni and Bolivia as a whole.
The document "Final Report" contains a summary of the experiences of DED and its partner organisations in the field of agroforestry systems. mehr
It is intended to be useful for governmental, national and international organizations and individuals who wish to actively contribute to the future development of sustainable agriculture in the tropical and subtropical areas of Bolivia.
Bolivia is the country in South America with the highest percentage of malnutrition, although a large part of the population is linked to agriculture. mehr
It should also be known that most farmers and livestock breeders live in regions with soils of little or no agricultural potential, which create living conditions of extreme poverty. The Tarata region, which is the subject of this article, has to deal with environmental problems and changes in society that put families in even more vulnerable situations. The introduction of an agroforestry system, which is only just beginning on the land of some farmers, is an attempt to respond to these problems. However, agroforestry is not a system practised in the region, and the farmers do not initially understand how it works well. This article tries to analyse the agroforestry system from the point of view of the farmers who are part of the project, but also from the point of view of some neighbours who do not know the system. By studying the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of the farmers, it is possible to understand specific problems that arise in connection with the new system and to develop the understanding of agroforestry. This allows to understand why the system can be more or less adapted to the farmers and what are the obstacles related to the CAP in the implementation of the system.
This toolkit is part of the scale-up activities of the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) for agroforestry technologies. mehr
The toolkit was developed to provide farmers with information on sustainable production and distribution of agroforestry seeds and seedlings. It also includes topics related to seed quality, the development of common strategies for seed production and ways to introduce sustainability into seed production and distribution systems.
In the current rush to tackle the consequences of global warming, much attention has been paid to the role of carbon dioxide and controlling the emission of this and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. mehr
The enormous increase in carbon dioxide has been attributed to the deforestation of the planet's forests and the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, gas and oil. The consequence of these activities is a disruption of established weather patterns and the resulting threat to sustainability and stability. However, the global measure proposed to overcome the impending crisis consists in controlling the burning of fossil fuels and the deposition of the resulting carbon dioxide in long-term sinks that are removed from the atmosphere we breathe and use. Most observers believe that the current efforts are too little and come too late.
Conventional resource management methods are increasingly criticized as being incapable of capturing the complexity of the socio-ecological systems in which they operate. mehr
Adaptive management techniques are increasingly recognized as the appropriate way to work in complex systems. Look globally: In North-South dimensions, this paper will mainly treat forestry as a social institutional system and analyse the development of forestry. Analogue forestry, an alternative method of land management, and how it grew and spread. The analysis will be carried out through a framework of social innovation and will highlight the importance of creative ingenuity.
Analogous forestry (Senanayake 1987) arose from the need to expand the habitat for biodiversity within anthropogenic (man-made) ecosystems. mehr
It is a form of ecological restoration that attempts to shape the processes and structures of ecosystems in such a way that they imitate the original. It is an intentional activity that initiates or accelerates the restoration of an ecosystem in terms of its health, integrity and sustainability, as defined by Ecological Restoration (SER 2004), but has also been described as elements that lend themselves as an art form (Senanayake and Palihawadana 1999). Indeed, in the traditions of modern art, the conceptual attention to designs in nature has led to a conceptual art in which the idea or concept is the most important aspect of the work. When an artist uses a conceptual art form, it means that all planning and decisions are made in advance and the execution is a superficial matter (LeWitt 1967). The idea becomes a machine that makes the art. Often a natural process is understood as art only when it is frozen in time and appears in a museum. Works of art, even conceptual works, are usually embedded in a form of object or structure. The depiction of Sri Lanka in the "Lagoon Cycle" (Harrison 1986) is a typical example of Analog Forestry's demand for creativity on the part of the designer, so that no monotony of form and function manifests itself. The knowledge of the different physical and ecological characteristics that allow the designer to choose according to colour, texture, presence of birds, butterflies, etc. in addition to useful functions such as providing food, medicines, fibres, etc. (Senanayake and Jack 1998). It requires the designer to take into account the texture of the forest through considerations such as the relative proportions of emergent, covered or canopied species in the design or the presence and proportions of growth forms such as epiphytes or lianas. The designer must take into account the ability of the design to maintain populations of indigenous species diversity etc., but must also be creative. Aspects such as colour and placement depend heavily on the designer's vision, especially as the full design may not manifest itself until many years after its introduction. Since this design is very similar to nature, it seems to create aesthetically and functionally superior landscapes. Analog Forestry offers a tool that makes this possible.
This accessible guide was compiled by the Secretariat of the International Analog Forestry Network (IAFN), Costa Rica. mehr
It is based on earlier work by Dr. Ranil Senanayake, senior forest scientist at Analog Forestry, Counterpart International, Falls Brook Centre, and CATIE University. It is used to communicate the concept of analogue forestry to a wide audience. It illustrates how the principles and techniques of AF can be applied in a standardized way.
The continuing alarming rate of tropical deforestation has prompted governments, NGOs and scientists to rethink approaches aimed at protecting and revitalizing the Earth's dwindling forest resources. mehr
While earlier efforts to conserve forests were top-down, focusing on protecting the land from human intrusion, recent initiatives recognise the importance of integrating and even taking into account the needs of the surrounding local population, who could otherwise cause forest degradation. Indeed, a paradigm shift has taken place, away from a focus on conservation, which is seen as impractical and potentially detrimental to the local economy, towards integrated protection and development projects that take into account both socio-economic and environmental concerns. This paper focuses on such an approach, the innovative nature restoration system designed by Dr. Ranil Senanayake, founder of the International Analogue Forestry Network. Analogue forestry seeks to restore degraded forest areas, often replacing inefficient slash-and-burn agriculture or livestock breeding methods with highly productive and biologically diverse regenerated forests that are capable of meeting the raw material needs of the local population (e.g. firewood, fodder, fruit, nuts, subsistence crops, timber) while providing them with an additional income and an ecologically stable environment. With hundreds of successful demonstration sites around the world, this approach offers a promising solution to restore lost biodiversity while meeting the needs of human development. However, successful implementation requires extensive planning, management and a high level of commitment from landowners and may not be appropriate if these resources are not available. A tropical rainforest is an outstanding and infinitely diverse work of art, but with a touch of human genius it can be transformed into a forest garden system that is even more beautiful and much more productive. Therefore, it is not enough just to work to preserve the rainforest. It is a composite resource of potentially enormous value to all of humanity if developed in a wise, constructive and sustainable way, and not destroyed. Its great diversity of vegetation, so poorly studied by science, could be used as a source of new and nutritious food, timber for construction and crafts, fibers and dyes for textiles, medicines, biomass for energy, rubber, resins and plastics to meet all human needs, especially the basic soul's need for beauty.
This guide has been prepared for those who live or want to live in productive and ecologically healthy forest areas: Producers, farmers, practitioners, ecologists and all those who love nature and want to manage the planet. mehr
Analogous forestry combines methods to restore forests and increase biodiversity and to create healthier and happier communities living in more productive and functional environments.
The document presents the main results of the project and the systematization of the findings and recommendations that were identified in a participatory construction process with the project participants. mehr
We hope that the issues addressed in this document will be useful for stakeholders in forestry, agriculture and biodiversity conservation, among others, and that they will be able to simultaneously promote analogous forestry as a strategy for restoring degraded land and production.
Dieser Leitfaden wurde für lokale Interessenvertreter verfasst, darunter Berater und lokale Organisationen, die bereit sind, Landwirte bei der Verbesserung ihrer land- und forstwirtschaftlichen Systeme und der Anwendung analoger Forstwirtschaftstechniken vor Ort zu unterstützen. mehr
Der Leitfaden beschreibt die Umsetzung der analogen Forstwirtschaft in 10 Schritten. Ein separates Handbuch für Moderatoren wurde als Ergänzung zu diesem Leitfaden erstellt und bietet praktische Sitzungen und Übungen für jeden der hier beschriebenen Schritte. Es führt Sie durch den Prozess der Anwendung der analogen Forstwirtschaft als Instrument zur Erhöhung der nachhaltigen Lebensgrundlagen und zur Verbesserung, Erhaltung und nachhaltigen Nutzung der Biodiversität.
Das Analog Forestry Site Log ist ein Instrument, welches Aktivitäten registriert, Karten, Formeln, Investitionen, Düngungstermine, Produktion in Menge und Marktwert, Veränderungen in der Standortbedingungen im Laufe der Zeit, Saatguternte, Experimente mit neuen Arten und von diesen mit wenig Erfahrung in einem bestimmten Bereich, Notizen zu möglichen Projektinitiativen usw. bündelt. mehr
[Translate to English:]
Das Analog Forestry Site Log ist ein Instrument, das im Rahmen des Regionalprojekts "Biodiversity Restoration and Community Development through Analog Forestry" dank der technischen Zusammenarbeit des Ibero-American Model Forest Network (IAMFN), des Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Centre (CATIE), des Falls Brook Centre (FBC), des International Network of Analog Forestry (RIFA) und der Förderung des Projekts durch die Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) entwickelt wurde.
Here we present a new alternative agricultural and forestry system, analogue forestry, which offers new insights and a new approach. mehr
This information package will provide a background and overview of analogue forestry. There is a definition of analogue forestry together with its history and its requirements. Case studies will be presented to give practical examples of how analogue forestry can work. Addresses and other reading material will be suggested to allow the reader to further explore the topic.
A number of important lessons could be learned today from the Incas' strategies for sustainable rural development in the Andes in view of future climate uncertainty. mehr
The rapid expansion of the Inca from the Cuzco area of highland Peru (ca. AD 1400–1532) produced the largest empire in the New World. Although this meteoric growth may in part be due to the adoption of innovative societal strategies, supported by a large labour force and a standing army, we argue that it would not have been possible without increased crop productivity, which was linked to more favourable climatic conditions. Here we present a multi-proxy, high-resolution 1200-year lake sediment record from Marcacocha, located 12 km north of Ollantaytambo, in the heartland of the Inca Empire. This record reveals a period of sustained aridity that began from AD 880, followed by increased warming from AD 1100 that lasted beyond the arrival of the Spanish in AD 1532. These increasingly warmer conditions would have allowed the Inca and their immediate predecessors the opportunity to exploit higher altitudes (post-AD 1150) by constructing agricultural terraces that employed glacial-fed irrigation, in combination with deliberate agroforestry techniques. There may be some important lessons to be learnt today from these strategies for sustainable rural development in the Andes in the light of future climate uncertainty.
Historical reports about the Incas show that they appreciated trees very much and practiced planting trees to meet their needs for fuel and wood. mehr
Historical accounts of the Inca indicate that they greatly valued trees and practiced planting to fulfil their needs for fuel and timber. These records are evaluated in the light of palaeoecological and archaeological evidence suggesting a dramatic increase in arboreal taxa from c. AD 1100 during a period of significant global temperature increase. This natural vegetation response to improving environmental conditions may have stimulated management; it is suggested that agroforestry has a long tradition in the Andes. With the arrival of the Spanish, in the 1530s, land management practices changed and forest resources became increasingly overexploited. A multidisciplinary approach may provide important lessons from the past for modern policy makers in Peru. Widespread planting of Eucalyptus may not be an appropriate solution. Land restoration projects should take account of natural diversity and utilize a range of native species. This is relevant in view of the current period of rising temperatures, and may help to alleviate both soil erosion and rural poverty.
The application of successive agroforestry systems favours a sustainable cultural practice that guarantees and promotes the sustainable use of natural resources for production and represents a medium to long-term investment, which is an environmental performance that is not yet rewarded but necessary. mehr
Uncontrolled grazing on the slopes of the Tunari Mountains leads to erosion and soil compaction. As a result, water cannot penetrate during rainy weather, which leads to flooding that destroys cultivated land downstream and floods the population of the valley. Since the water cannot penetrate the soil, there is a risk that the natural slopes will dry out and the water stored in the subsoil will be lost. The application of agroforestry systems offers the possibility of improving this situation and at the same time achieving long-term productivity. This text describes the principles of successive agroforestry systems and the first eight years of implementation, management and experience gained on a plot of land with an agroforestry system with the primary olive tree species. The application of successive agroforestry systems favours a sustainable cultural practice that guarantees and promotes the sustainable use of natural resources for production and represents a medium to long-term investment that is a not yet rewarded but necessary environmental performance.
The technique of cultivating different plant species with different characteristics is known as agroforestry. It was already used by the Incas about a thousand years ago. mehr
The Bolivian state is home to a diversity of 36 ethnic groups that support the welfare of society through their commercial relationships. Foreign people who have recently come to the country because they need to get to know their previously unknown surroundings try to join forces with the locals to live a good life.
As in human society, the interrelation and connection between different species is of mutual benefit for the plant kingdom. On a species-rich site, the climate is temperate, there is no pressure from pests or diseases, the soil is protected from water and wind erosion and has a good capacity to store moisture. These factors contribute to resistance (the ability to adapt to and recover from environmental disturbances) to climate change. In addition, for all introduced plant species, the association with native plant species is favourable.
The technique of production by association of species with different characteristics is called agroforestry. It was already used by the Incas about a thousand years ago. Under today's soil and climate conditions, it is time to re-evaluate this production technique. In addition, agroforestry, due to the biodiversity within a plot, allows optimal use of the farm area, both vertically and horizontally, and makes agrochemicals superfluous. It is therefore a technology that supports the "Living Well".
Education in the forest comes from a new relationship between man and nature, which has undergone constant changes over time. One of the most important examples of this is agriculture, which came into being at the moment when man started to move away from what he usually harvested or what nature offered him to plant his food and drastically changed the ecosystems. mehr
Agroforestry tries to reproduce systems of succession, with groups of herbaceous, arboreal and tree-like plants in a dynamic, successive and natural system. It is a turning point in agroecology, characterized as a regenerative method where people respect nature in its complementarity and diversity and live in coexistence with it. Free education is a fundamental instrument for this type of agriculture, which promotes participation, culture and conscience. The agroforestry succession system has the principles of diversity and species density, in this order, knowledge of local conditions and respect for farmers and the community is essential. Research is developing with the farmers of the "Oiteirinhos Farm" in the city of Japaratuba, in Sergipe, which involves local farmers in agroforestry systems sucessionais and offers opportunities for collective appropriation of the principles that prevail in the region. It has been verified that the relationship between farmers and nature and the knowledge of the social actors, is included in the proposal. Then a geographical database on the use of the land was developed. The introduction of agroforestry systems, was implemented with the farmers and categories were developed based on the interviews and observations of the farmers. In the end, this work confirms the importance in the use of agroforestry systems. Through the educational process, farmers become co-creators for reality and partners, not dominators. They become involved, participate, develop a new attitude for and with the world. In conclusion, the perception of these people has gone through a process of modification or reconstruction. The collective appropriation of the agroforestry succession systems went beyond perception and thus showed the methodological proposal of education for the agroforestry succession systems that were built up during this long process of planting.
This investigation was based on a case study in the settlement of Fruta D'Anta, a rural community in João Pinheiro, Minas Gerais, Brazil. There it was found that conventional agricultural technologies and the idea of productivism account for a large part of the production dynamics and define the agroecosystem planted by local farmers. mehr
Consortia of mixed crops implemented in agroforestry systems have been proposed to farmers to disseminate techniques and practices that promote the transformation of conventional models into sustainable models based on agroecological principles. Three modules of agroforestry systems were planted in different locations in the community to demonstrate the practical results. The planted model of agroforestry system was complex and is based on the natural succession of species, known as succession agroforestry. In parallel with the proposed agroforestry system, the use of stones as a natural fertilizer was also part of this research, which has already been used in the past at some sites in the municipality. Interviews were conducted as part of a socio-economic and ecological diagnosis of the farmers involved. During the research, a greenhouse was also built in the central area of the community to spread the use of trees and perennial crops to strengthen the collective work in the community. The planted agroforestry systems had developed well, especially the perennial species and the legumes planted with organic-mineral fertilization (stones and organic compost). The management of the agroforestry systems was well done by the farmers, which shows that they had a satisfactory understanding of the ecological processes of the use of organic composts, legumes (green manure), tree and mixed crops. The results of the experiences with agroforestry systems showed that the municipality of Fruta D'Anta has an enormous potential to promote agro-ecological transition, especially the farmers involved in the research. The main elements for this transition are the low external inputs and the labour-intensive manual production. However, a number of limitations of the transition process can also be identified, mainly related to the low production diversity and the lack of organic alternatives for the production systems.
Here you can learn more about analog forestry as a production system... mehr
Analogue forestry establishes a tree-dominated ecosystem that is analogous in structure and function to the original climax and sub-climax community. With time, the natural progression of any undisturbed forest community is to increase in diversity and stability until a highly complex ecosystem or Climax State is reached. When an ecosystem is designed to mimic the indigenous Climax State, the efficiency and dynamics of the natural processes can be replicated. Such forests are referred to as analogue forests. In addition to their ecological characteristics, analogue forests are designed to provide economic benefits. A broad range of commodities can be produced that may include: fruit, nuts, herbs, cut-flowers and cut-foliage, pharmaceuticals, timber. The commodities and values are weighted by the landholder and considered in the context of their culture. People are an integral part of the landscape and are considered by Analogue Forestry to be a major component of the forests’ ecology. The inclusion of species requires they contribute to the forest’s ecology and this imperative overrides all other factors. Thus, an analogue forest may be comprised of natural and exotic species in any proportion depending upon the landholder’s culture and the species relevance to the landscape. It is the blend of ecological, economic and sociological aspects that gives analogue forestry its inherent sustainability as a production system.
The purpose of this research was to approach agro-forestry systems (SAF's) in the context of the New Institutional Economy (NEI) in order to identify the institutional and organizational variables that limit or constrain the performance and development of these productive activities in the state of Rondônia. Also to describe the variables that are more motricity, using the Prospective Structural Matrix - MEP. mehr
In the Brazilian Amazon, it has expanded production through SAF's, which are operated by small family producers. SAF's are forms of land use where forest components are associated with agriculture and/or livestock, using degraded areas or conservation units that help reduce human pressure on the natural environment. Agroforestry producers are organised through associations and/or cooperatives that integrate primary production into the improvement of the agro-industrial sector. Research had recognized the NEI as a theoretical approach that happened to complement the conditions of the neoclassical economy when it confirmed the existence of the operating costs of the economic system, the transaction costs. Transaction costs analyze the inadequacy of the pricing system in ensuring market efficiency, which leads to the appearance of institutions and organizations necessary for governance (governance - governability) in transactions and reducing their costs. When transaction costs increase and the market becomes inefficient, new institutions and organizations emerge. With the new patterns of competition, especially with the acceleration of the globalization process, the institutional and organizational atmospheres should be favorable for economic and productive activities. However, there are obstacles in the institutional and organizational atmosphere that limit the performance and development of activities that need to be known and described. For the collection of the variables, 10 (ten) specialists were consulted in the SAFs of the State of Rondônia, which operate in public institutions supporting agricultural activities and provide support for local agroforestry activities, with 33 (thirty-three) identified variables being considered restrictive and restrictive. The study found that the main obstacles are to be found in the institutional atmosphere, as the behaviour of agents is considered to be government policy. However, there are also constraints of an organizational nature, in particular due to the constraints of the producers. A theoretical description of the motivational variables was carried out, using scientific studies already carried out on SAFs that approach the variables identified here. Finally, an empirical description of the variables was carried out through interviews with the managers, executives and employees of RECA and APAFLORA to determine how the variables affect the two organizations. A pre-test carried out with 06 (six) specialists using the SPSS (Alpha von Cronbach) software showed a high level of consistency in the variables collected and in the collection technique and data handling.
Find out how the DAF contributes to the sustainable development of the Amazon region. mehr
The rural population of the Bolivian Amazon region is currently in a critical situation in terms of population growth, extension of the agricultural border and in relation to climate change, resulting in unprecedented pressure on natural resources and a serious threat to food security. Against this background, the Centre for Research and Promotion of Agriculture has carried out a study to assess the economic and environmental potential of agroforestry systems (SAF). A study of 11 cases in the northern Amazon, Moxos and Guarayos has collected quantitative and qualitative data on the costs, revenues and economic benefits of SAFs, as well as the environmental benefits they generate in terms of carbon sequestration and biodiversity restoration. Our results show that, within the wide variety of PES implemented with CIPCA support, agroforestry land in all cases makes a significant contribution to family income and nutrition while providing other products for local use. In addition, the PAS provide a variety of environmental services. Especially with an average carbon sequestration rate of 16.6 Tn C/Ha and a high biodiversity, the PES have a great potential for nature conservation mechanisms and climate protection.
The producers themselves appreciate these multiple benefits of the PES and even attach more importance to the environmental and psychosocial benefits of the PES than to their direct economic contribution. Based on these findings, we conclude that the SAFs have great potential for sustainable development in the Amazon and recommend that the great potential of the SAFs for public policy be taken into account with a more comprehensive approach to the development of the Amazon.
This study aims to evaluate the effect of the floristic diversity of agroforestry systems on the generation of socio-economic benefits in the eastern Amazon region... mehr
The study also describes the composition and floristic diversity of agroforestry systems and then analyses the effect of floristic diversity on income, costs and satisfaction. The SAFs offer an alternative to the crisis of socio-ecological sustainability in the tropics. The authors conclude:
The cooperation with the PES provides more satisfaction for farmers and biodiversity reduces costs and increases the income (non-monetary and net) of farmers.
Species-rich home gardens generate a higher income per area (non-monetary and net), which explains the success and persistence of their pantropical practice.
The strengthening of home gardens can contribute to poverty reduction and food security in the eastern Amazon and the tropics.
In view of the increasing need for restoration of former agricultural land worldwide and especially in the tropics, it is crucial to investigate different models of how to restore such land in a cost-effective way that best simulates the natural recovery of forests and safeguards human livelihoods... mehr
With the increasing need to restore former agricultural lands worldwide and in the tropics, in particular, it is critical to explore different models for how to restore these lands in a cost-effective manner which best simulates natural forest recovery and provides for human livelihoods.
We propose that agro-successional restoration, which we define as incorporating a range of agroecology and agroforestry techniques as a transition phase early in forest restoration, could be used more widely to overcome socioeconomic and ecological obstacles to restoring these lands.
Over centuries, farmers and scientists have developed various agroforestry techniques that aim to cultivate crops and trees, in a range of crop types, time periods of cultivation(a few years to several decades), and complexity of species planted. The management practices used in these systems, such as weeding and increasing soil fertility, parallel those used in many forest restoration efforts. The synergism between these approaches is evidenced by many existing agro-successional examples currently used by smallholders in the tropics. Benefits of the agro-successional model include extending the management period of restoration, offsetting some management costs, providing food security for small landholders, and involving small landholders in the restoration process.
Biodiversity is expected to reduce risks (resistance and resilience to disturbances), increase productivity through niche expansion and possibly also improve resource efficiency through mutually beneficial interactions between species. mehr
Biodiversity is believed to reduce risks (resistance and resilience against perturbations), to increase productivity via niche expansion, and possibly also to improve resource efficiency via mutually benefic species interactions. Agroforestry has been postulated as an ideal pathway of maintaining or restoring biodiversity in a socioeconomically sustainable manner. This study tests the relevance of agroforestry species diversity and richness on socioeconomic performance in a wide range of agroforestry systems in 38 farms aggregated in four clusters of sites in eastern Amazonia. We cover both commercial and subsistence agroforestry, ranging from simply structured plantations to diverse systems (enriched fallows, multi-strata home gardens), as well as pastures and shifting cultivation for comparisons. We quantify all cultivated species, classifying them economically into species with commercial value, primarily subsistence purpose species or “non-productive” species, and socioeconomic system variables (costs, monetary/non-monetary income, degree of satisfaction). Land-use intensity (per-hectare costs and income) was highest in commercial agroforestry and subsistence home gardens, and lowest in enriched fallows and pastures. All agroforestry systems resulted in higher income: cost ratios and greater satisfaction than pastures and shifting cultivation. Net income, non-monetary income and income: cost ratio were maximum in home gardens. Total species richness was negatively related with costs and monetary income, but not with non-monetary income, due to occupation of space by ‘non-productive’ species (juveniles or species providing ecosystem services). By contrast, productive (combining commercial and subsistence) species richness was positively related with (mainly non-monetary) income, net income and income: cost ratio. According to GLM, both productive species richness and Shannon–Wiener diversity positively affected net income. Future efforts for food security and poverty reduction need to focus more on species rich agroforestry systems, both in terms of applied research and of extension service programs. Notably, the ubiquitous and successful home gardens merit far more attention.
In 2006, the team of international and local DED experts working in agroforestry defined "successful agroforestry" as follows mehr
In 2006 the team of international and local experts of DED working in agroforestry defined Successional Agroforestry as follows:
“Successional Agroforestry is similar to natural regeneration, following the natural process of succession and dynamic in the local ecosystem. The plantation of an agroforestry parcel consists of pioneer, secondary (I, II, III) and primary species with a certain density and highest possibility of diversity which, at the same time, satisfies the needs of the small-scale farmers a possible.”
Implementation of a parcel of Successional Agroforestry focuses on:
- Preservation of local biodiversity by optimizing small farmers income
- Combination of long-term cash crops (cacao, coffee, citrus) with short term (rice, corn, yucca), mid term (banana, pineapple, papaya) cash crops and timber
- Selective cutting of shadow trees and hashing the organic material, which is later used on the ground as mulch to protect the soil recycle plant nutrients and upgrade soil structure to improve its humidity capacity
- Leguminous trees are fixing nitrogen to ameliorate soil fertility
The installation of a successional agroforestry parcel in sum is as follows:
- Clean the space from weeds, chop and leave the organic material on the floor, existing timber trees and those which offer shadow will remain
- Plant banana subspecies, yucca, sugar cane, pineapple, cocoa, coffee, citrus
- Seed corn, rice, fabaceous, annatto, papaya, hibiscus, fruit and timber trees as available
- Cut all the remaining trees as low as possible, chopping the organic material for mulch
This report mainly summarises the results of the monitoring of agroforestry areas carried out by the member organisations of the Interinstitutional Alto Beni (IIAB). Thus the results of the work carried out by the technicians of the PIAF - El Ceibo, Agro - O.S.C.A.R., PATAGC and Ecotop are included. mehr
The main objective of this work is to assess the economic potential of cocoa agroforestry farms in the colonization zones in the north of the department of La Paz, Bolivia.
The aim is to create an economic database that can serve as a reference for the various projects working in this area, and based on the experience analysed in the member institutions of the IIAB, we want to provide a source of information to support the reflection process in the projects working with agroforestry systems (SAF).
Viele eingedrungene einheimische Pflanzen sind, wenn sie richtig gemanagt werden, ausgezeichnete Begleiterpflanzen für die Kulturpflanzenarten. Außerdem sind sie gut an die bestehenden edaphischen Bedingungen angepasst. mehr
Diese Studie beschäftigt sich mit dem Ertrag von Winterweizen im Vergleich zu dem aus monokulturellen Anbau. mehr
Diese Studie beschäftigt sich mit dem Beitrag von Agroforstsystemen zur Ernährungssicherung. mehr
Prof. Plieninger von der Universität Kassel kommt bei seiner Untersuchung (2017) über den Beitrag von Agroforstsystemen zur Ernährungssicherung zu einem überraschenden Ergebnis: Wird auf einem Weizenfeld 20% der Fläche mit einem einfachen Agroforstsystem bepflanzt und dazwischen wie bisher Weizen auf den verbleibenden 80% ausgesät, so liegt der Ertrag aus Holz und Weizenernte pro Hektar um etwa 17% höher im Vergleich zum klassischen Anbau von Weizen in Monokultur. Selbst bei einem Vergleich von Weizenanbau auf 100% der Fläche in Monokultur mit Weizenanbau auf 80% der Fläche in Agroforstsystemen, so liegt auch hier der Netto-Weizenertrag mit einem Agroforstsystem um 2,6 % höher. Diese Untersuchungen zeigen das große Potenzial von Agroforstsystemen für die Landwirtschaft.
Diese Studie befasst sich damit, wie Agroforstsysteme dabei helfen können, die Nitrateinträge der Landwirtschaft in das Grundwasser deutlich zu senken. mehr
Auf intensiv genutzten landwirtschaftlichen Flächen kommt es häufig zu einem Überschuss an Stickstoff (N), der ins Grundwasser gelangt und dort den Anteil von Nitrat (NO3-) erhöht. In vielen Regionen lagen in letzter Zeit die Nitratwerte im Grundwasser deutlich über den zugelassenen Werten. Bäume auf dem Acker können hier helfen. Ihr tiefgreifendes Wurzelsystem, das sich auch unterhalb der landwirtschaftlichen Ackerkulturen ausbreitet, funktioniert wie ein Sicherheitsnetz. Zum einen nehmen die Baumwurzeln überschüssiges Nitrat auf, zum anderen reduziert ihr feines Wurzelnetzwerk die Auswaschung von Stoffen ins Grundwasser insgesamt.
Kakaoanbau in Monokulturen und im Dynamischen Agroforst System mehr
Schlüsselbotschaft Schattenbäume in Agroforstsystemen schützen den Unterbaukakao vor Klimaextremen. Schattenbaum. Beim Beschneiden werden die mikroklimatischen Bedingungen zugunsten der Kakaoproduktion verwaltet, während die Baumvielfalt erhalten bleibt. Anpassung Beim Beschneiden müssen saisonale Änderungen der Temperatur und des Niederschlags berücksichtigt werden, um den Kakao im Unterholz zu schützen mehr
Una adopción dependiente de los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de los agricultores en relación con la implementación de un nuevo sistema. mehr
Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Rentabilität und die Kosteneffizienz entgegen der gängigen Auffassung für kleine, schattierte Systeme höher sind. Trotz der geringeren Erträge für abgeschattete Systeme führen die niedrigeren Kosten pro Fläche und der höhere Preis pro Kilogramm Kaffee oder Kakao dazu, dass sich abgeschattete Systeme finanziell besser entwickeln. Diese Feststellung zeigt, dass der traditionelle Indikator „Rendite“ bei der Untersuchung diversifizierter Systeme ein ungenaues Maß für die finanzielle Leistung darstellt und stattdessen die detaillierteren Indikatoren wie Nettoumsatz oder Nutzen-Kosten-Verhältnis verwendet werden sollten. mehr
Die kumulierten Erträge aller geernteten Produkte waren in den Agroforstsystemen (+ 161%) im Vergleich zu den Monokulturen signifikant höher. mehr
Untersuchte Faktoren Gehölzstrukturen, organische Düngung inkl. Fruchtfolge und Bodenbearbeitung: Einfluss auf Bodenwasserhaushalt bzw. Wasserinfiltration, positive Ertragswirkungen; Ertragswirksamkeit der reduzierten Bodenbearbeitung noch offen
Die langfristigen Auswirkungen der untersuchten Faktoren, auch in Kombination miteinander: Gegenstand weiterer Untersuchungen
Die Ergebnisse der Studie zeigen, dass AFS zu einer nachhaltigen Intensivierung der Landwirtschaft und der Diversifizierung der landwirtschaftlichen Einkommen beitragen können, ohne den Ertrag der Ackerkulturen Winterraps und Winterweizen wesentlich zu reduzieren. mehr
Die Ergebnisse aus der Langzeitbeobachtung der Flächen zeigen tendenziell eine Aufwertung des Landschaftsbildes, insbesondere in landschaftsästhetisch stark beeinträchtigten Landschaften. mehr
Überblick über die AG Agroforst deutschland, die European Agroforestry Federation (EURAF), das EU Projekt AGFORWARD und das Göttinger Projekt SIGNAL mehr
Erfassung und Analyse der aktuellen Verbreitung von AFS und ihrer Rahmenbedingungen und Überblick über die systemische Einteilung von AFS in Europa, sowie ein Überblick über aktuelle Fördermöglichkeiten mehr
Schafbeweidung in Hochstamm-Plantagen in England und Frankreich reduziert die Kosten der Grünland -Bewirtschaftung / Anbau von Leguminosen bzw. Schafbeweidung erhöht den Holzzuwachs bei Walnuss/ Woodland eggs: Hennen nutzen Freiräume intensiver, geringere Schäden durch Federpicken, weniger Austausch mit Wildvögeln/ Tree fodder: Blätter von Robinie, Esskastanie, Maulbeere, Esche haben 22% Proteingehalt/ AFS haben ein höheres Betriebseinkommen/ AFS ist biodiverser und speichert Kohlenstoff
Überblick über die rechtliche Situation in Deutschland, über Regelungen und Fördermöglichkeiten mehr
Winderosion-/ Verdunstungsschutz von AFS mehr
Forschungsversuch mit dem analytischen Hierarchieprozess (AHP) - Methode zur Quantifizierung von Expertenmeinungen) mehr
Keylinestruktur - Schlüssellinienkultur - im Hang und Gebirge gibt es bestimmte Linien, wo sich Wasser bervorzugt hinunter fließt. Wenn diese Linien bepflanzt werden, kann der Hang besser gehalten werden. mehr
Einfluss von Schatten auf Winter- und Sommerweizen mehr
Schnellerer Übergang in die Frucht-Ertragsphase, Arbeitsintensiver Baumschnitt wird vereinfacht bzw. fällt weg, (Gefährliche) Ernte in Schwindelhöhe fällt weg, Pflanzmöglichkeiten für kleinere Gärten schaffen, Durch engere Pflanzabstände größere Sortenvielfalt möglich -> größere Ertragssicherheit mehr
These systems demonstrate the potential for greater productivity with increasing diversity of plants when species occupy different niches, canopy layers, and below-ground rooting zones. Designers and researchers therefore should emphasize the development of modeling tools to evaluate how the range of soil conditions, climate scenarios, management schemes, species selections, and system layouts could impact multispecies systems. mehr
Implementierung, Installation, Verwaltung und Dynamik einer Agroforst-Parzelle mehr
Strategien für nachhaltige Lösungen für die Erholung und Produktivitätssteigerung mehr
Die Produktivität von Kakao pro Hektar sank im letzten Jahrzehnt kontinuierlich von 700 kg / ha im Jahr 2000 auf 611 kg / ha im Jahr 2009. Die Grundnahrungsmittelproduktion wie Yams, Maniok, Mais und Erdnüsse steckt ebenfalls in einer Krise. Daher werden Bodenerosion und Bodenmangel nicht durch Mineraldüngeranwendungen gestoppt und die zunehmenden Probleme mit Schädlingen und Krankheiten werden auch nicht durch das Sprühen von Pestiziden gelöst.
Nachahmung lokaler natürlicher Ökosysteme: Das Konzept der Nachfolge-Agroforstwirtschaft als eine besondere Art des Mehrschichtensystems. mehr
Die Produktivität von Rizinusölanlagen innerhalb des Nachfolgesystems ist fast doppelt so hoch wie innnerhalb der Monokultur. Vergleicht man die Produktivität der Monokultur mit der Gesamtproduktivität von sechs anderen Kulturen innerhalb des Systems, war die Erntemenge um einen Faktor von etwa 4,2 pro Hektar gestiegen.
Der Anbau von einjährigen Pflanzen in der Anfangsphase der Wiederaufforstung ist eine relativ verbreitete Praxis auf der ganzen Welt, oft als Taungya bezeichnet. Landwirte bauen Getreide wie Bohnen, Maniok oder Getreide an, während sie eine Reihe von Baumarten für die Holzproduktion anpflanzen. Nachfolgende Agroforstsysteme vermischen Pflanzenarten und sortenreine Arten nach und nach mit zunehmendem Einkommen, Biodiversität, Struktur und Funktion des Ökosystems. jede Stufe „erzeugt die physische Umgebung, die für die nächste Stufe erforderlich ist“; mehr
Kann die konventionelle Landwirtschaft die Erträge liefern, die wir benötigen, um bis 2050 10 Milliarden Menschen zu ernähren? Angesichts des Klimawandels ist die wichtigere Frage, zu welchen sozialen und ökologischen Kosten? Um den Hunger zu beenden, müssen wir Armut und Ungleichheit beenden. Für diese Herausforderung sind agrarökologische Ansätze und Strukturreformen, die sicherstellen, dass ressourcenarme Landwirte über das Land und die Ressourcen verfügen, die sie für einen nachhaltigen Lebensunterhalt benötigen, der beste Weg. mehr